Homogeneously derived transit timings for 17 exoplanets and reassessed TTV trends for WASP-12 and WASP-4

R. V. Baluev, E. N. Sokov, H. R. A. Jones, V. Sh Shaidulin, I. A. Sokova, L. D. Nielsen, P. Benni, E. M. Schneiter, C. Villarreal D'Angelo, E. Fernández-Lajús, R. P. Di Sisto, Ö. Baştürk, M. Bretton, A. Wunsche, V. -P. Hentunen, S. Shadick, Y. Jongen, W. Kang, T. Kim, E. PakštienėJ. K. T. Qvam, C. R. Knight, P. Guerra, A. Marchini, F. Salvaggio, R. Papini, P. Evans, M. Salisbury, F. Garcia, D. Molina, J. Garlitz, N. Esseiva, Y. Ogmen, Yu Karavaev, S. Rusov, M. A. Ibrahimov, R. G. Karimov

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We homogeneously analyse ∼3.2 × 10 5 photometric measurements for ∼1100 transit light curves belonging to 17 exoplanet hosts. The photometric data cover 16 years (2004–2019) and include amateur and professional observations. Old archival light curves were reprocessed using up-to-date exoplanetary parameters and empirically debiased limb-darkening models. We also derive self-consistent transit and radial-velocity fits for 13 targets. We confirm the nonlinear transit timing variation (TTV) trend in the WASP-12 data at a high significance, and with a consistent magnitude. However, Doppler data reveal hints of a radial acceleration of about −7.5 ± 2.2 m s −1 yr −1, indicating the presence of unseen distant companions, and suggesting that roughly 10 per cent of the observed TTV was induced via the light-travel (or Roemer) effect. For WASP-4, a similar TTV trend suspected after the recent TESS observations appears controversial and model dependent. It is not supported by our homogeneous TTV sample, including 10 ground-based EXPANSION light curves obtained in 2018 simultaneously with TESS. Even if the TTV trend itself does exist in WASP-4, its magnitude and tidal nature are uncertain. Doppler data cannot entirely rule out the Roemer effect induced by possible distant companions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1294-1312
Number of pages19
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
Early online date19 Sept 2019
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019


  • astro-ph.EP
  • Surveys
  • Techniques: photometric
  • Methods: statistical
  • Techniques: radial velocities
  • Methods: data analysis
  • Planetary systems


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