Hybridizing solid oxide fuel cells with internal combustion engines for power and propulsion systems: A review

Hamed Chehrmonavari, Amirhasan Kakaee, Seyed Ehsan Hosseini, Umberto Desideri, George Tsatsaronis, Gus Floerchinger, Robert Braun, Amin Paykani

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


There has been a growing demand to develop new energy conversion devices with high efficiency and very low emissions for both power and propulsion applications in response to the net zero-carbon emission targets by 2050. Among these technologies, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have received attention due to their high electrical efficiency (above 60%), fuel flexibility, low-emission, and high-grade waste heat, which makes them particularly suitable for a large number of applications for power and propulsion systems. The higher operating temperatures make SOFCs suitable candidates for integration with an additional power generation device such as an internal combustion engine (ICE) by (a) using the residual fuel of the anode off-gas in the engine, which further increases overall system efficiency to values exceeding 70%, (b) decreasing combustion inefficiencies and (c) increasing waste heat recovery. This paper reviews the published work on hybrid SOFC-ICE systems considering various configurations. It has been found that integrated SOFC-ICE systems are promising candidates over conventional engines and stand-alone SOFCs to be used in stationary power generation and heavy-duty applications (e.g., marine and locomotive propulsion systems). The discussion of the present review paper provides useful insights for future research on hybrid electrochemical-combustion processes for power and propulsion systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112982
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Early online date8 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jan 2023


  • Efficiency
  • Hybrid system
  • IC engine
  • Power generation
  • Propulsion system
  • SOFC


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