The incorporation of reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) into massive multiple-input-multiple-output (mMIMO) systems can unleash the potential of next-generation networks by improving the performance of user equipments (UEs) in service dead zones. However, their requirement for accurate channel state information (CSI) is critical, and especially, applications with UE mobility that induce channel aging make challenging the achievement of adequate quality of service. Hence, in this work, we investigate the impact of channel aging on the performance of RIS-assisted mMIMO systems under both spatial correlation and imperfect CSI conditions. Specifically, by accounting for channel aging during both uplink training and downlink data transmission phases, we first perform minimum mean square error (MMSE) channel estimation to obtain the UE effective channels with low overhead similar to conventional systems without RIS. Next, we derive the downlink achievable sum spectral efficiency (SE) with regularized zero-forcing (RZF) precoding in closed-form being dependent only on large-scale statistics by using the deterministic equivalent (DE) analysis. Subsequently, we present the attractive optimization of the achievable sum SE with respect to the phase shifts and the total transmit power that can be performed every several coherence intervals due to the slow variation of the large-scale statistics. Numerical results validate the analytical expressions and demonstrate the performance while allowing the extraction of insightful design conclusions for common scenarios including UE mobility. In particular, channel aging degrades the performance but its impact can be controlled by choosing appropriately the frame duration or by increasing the number of RIS elements.
- achievable spectral efficiency
- beyond 5G networks
- channel aging
- Channel estimation
- channel estimation
- Rayleigh channels
- Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)