In silico investigation of novel compounds as inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase enzyme for the treatment of Alzheimer’s diseases

Kassim Adebambo, Oghenekevwe (Claudia) Ojoh

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Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a “progressive, neurodegenerative disease that occurs when nerve cells in the brain die.” There are only 4 drugs approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Three (donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine) out of these four drugs are anticholinesterase inhibitors, while the fourth one memantine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor inhibitor. Currently, two immunotherapy drugs that target amyloid protein (donanemab and lecanemab) are being considered for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease at an early stage. All these drug molecules are still not the complete answer to the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. A recent report from the Office of National Statistics showed that AD is the leading cause of death in 2022. Therefore, there is an urgency to develop more drugs that can treat AD. Based on this urgency, we aim to investigate how bioactive and already approved drugs could be repurposed for inhibiting the anticholinesterase enzyme using computational studies. To achieve this, the data science tool—Python coding was compiled on Jupyter Notebook to mine bioactive compounds from the ChEMBL database. The most bioactive compounds obtained were further investigated using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) software to carry out molecular docking and ligand analysis, and this was followed by molecular dynamics simulation production at 35 ns using GROMACS 2022.4 on Archer 2 machine. The molecular dynamic analysis was carried out using HeroMDanalysis software. Data mining of the ChEMBL database was carried out for lipase inhibitors, and this gave CHEMBL-ID 1240685, a peptide molecule, the most active compound at the time of data mining. Further literature studies gave Zoladex an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of breast cancer as another compound of interest. The in silico studies were carried out against the anticholinesterase enzyme using two FDA-approved drugs donepezil and galantamine as a template for comparing the in silico activities of the repurposed drugs. A very useful receptor for this study was PDB-1DX6, a cocrystallized galantamine inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. The molecular docking analysis (using ligand interactions) and molecular dynamic analysis (root mean square deviation (RMSD) and root mean square fluctuation (RMSF)) showed that the two peptide molecules CHEMBL-1240685 and Zoladex gave the best binding energy and stability when compared to the FDA-approved drugs (donepezil and galantamine). Finally, further literature studies revealed that Zoladex affects memory reduction; therefore, it was dropped as a possible repurposed drug. Our research showed that CHEMBL-1240685 is a potential compound that could be investigated for the inhibition of anticholinesterase enzyme and might be another drug molecule that could be used to treat Alzheimer’s disease.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2988685
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalInternational Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
Volume2024
Early online date8 Feb 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 8 Feb 2024

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