In situ gelling formulations are drug delivery systems which typically exist in a liquid form at room temperature and change into gel state after application to the body in response to various stimuli such as changes in temperature, pH and ionic composition. Their biomedical application can further be improved by incorporating drug nanoparticles into in situ gelling systems in order to prolong drug release, reduce dosing frequency and improve therapeutic outcomes of patients, developing highly functional but challenging dosage forms. The composition of in situ gelling formulations influence factors relating to performance such as their syringeability, rheology, drug release profile and drug bioavailability at target sites, amongst other factors. The inclusion of mucoadhesive polymeric constituents into in situ gelling formulations has also been explored to ensure that the therapeutic agents are retained at target site for extended period of time. This review article will discuss traditional techniques (water bath-based vial inversion and viscometry) as well as advanced methodology (rheometry, differential scanning calorimetry, Small Angle Neutron Scattering, Small Angle X-ray Scattering, etc.) for evaluating in situ gel forming systems for topical drug delivery. The clinical properties of in situ gelling systems that have been studied for potential biomedical applications over the last ten years will be reviewed to highlight current knowledge in the performance of these systems. Formulation issues that have slowed the translation of some promising drug formulations from the research laboratory to the clinic will also be detailed.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics|
|Early online date||13 Jan 2023|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 13 Jan 2023|