Ionised gas kinematics and dynamical masses of $z\gtrsim6$ galaxies from JADES/NIRSpec high-resolution spectroscopy

Anna de Graaff, Hans-Walter Rix, Stefano Carniani, Katherine A. Suess, Stéphane Charlot, Emma Curtis-Lake, Santiago Arribas, William M. Baker, Kristan Boyett, Andrew J. Bunker, Alex J. Cameron, Jacopo Chevallard, Mirko Curti, Daniel J. Eisenstein, Marijn Franx, Kevin Hainline, Ryan Hausen, Zhiyuan Ji, Benjamin D. Johnson, Gareth C. JonesRoberto Maiolino, Michael V. Maseda, Erica Nelson, Eleonora Parlanti, Tim Rawle, Brant Robertson, Sandro Tacchella, Hannah Übler, Christina C. Williams, Christopher N. A. Willmer, Chris Willott

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We explore the kinematic gas properties of six $5.51$ thus far. The cold gas masses implied by the observed star formation rates are $\sim 10\times$ larger than the stellar masses. We find that their ionised gas is spatially resolved by JWST, with evidence for broadened lines and spatial velocity gradients. Using a simple thin-disc model, we fit these data with a novel forward modelling software that accounts for the complex geometry, point spread function, and pixellation of the NIRSpec instrument. We find the sample to include both rotation- and dispersion-dominated structures, as we detect velocity gradients of $v(r_{\rm e})\approx100-150\,{\rm km\,s^{-1}}$, and find velocity dispersions of $\sigma_0\approx 30-70\,{\rm km\,s^{-1}}$ that are comparable to those at cosmic noon. The dynamical masses implied by these models ($M_{\rm dyn}\sim10^{9-10}\,{\rm M_\odot}$) are larger than the stellar masses by up to a factor 40, and larger than the total baryonic mass (gas + stars) by a factor of $\sim 3$. Qualitatively, this result is robust even if the observed velocity gradients reflect ongoing mergers rather than rotating discs. Unless the observed emission line kinematics is dominated by outflows, this implies that the centres of these galaxies are dark-matter dominated or that star formation is $3\times$ less efficient, leading to higher inferred gas masses.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 18 Aug 2023


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