Jades: The incidence rate and properties of galactic outflows in low-mass galaxies across 3 < z < 9

Stefano Carniani, Giacomo Venturi, Eleonora Parlanti, Anna de Graaff, Roberto Maiolino, Santiago Arribas, Nina Bonaventura, Kristan Boyett, Andrew J. Bunker, Alex J. Cameron, Stephane Charlot, Jacopo Chevallard, Mirko Curti, Emma Curtis-Lake, Daniel J. Eisenstein, Giovanna Giardino, Ryan Hausen, Nimisha Kumari, Michael V. Maseda, Erica NelsonMichele Perna, Hans-Walter Rix, Brant Robertson, Bruno Rodríguez Del Pino, Lester Sandles, Jan Scholtz, Charlotte Simmonds, Renske Smit, Sandro Tacchella, Hannah Übler, Chris Willott, Joris Witstok

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We investigate the incidence and properties of ionized gas outflows in a sample of 52 galaxies with stellar mass between $10^7$ M$_{\odot}$ and $10^9$ M$_{\odot}$ observed with ultra-deep JWST/NIRSpec MSA spectroscopy as part of the JWST Advanced Deep Extragalactic Survey (JADES). The high-spectral resolution (R2700) NIRSpec observations allowed us to identify for the first time the signature of outflows in the rest-frame optical nebular lines in low-mass galaxies at $z>3$. The incidence fraction of ionized outflows, traced by broad components, is about 25-40$\%$ depending on the intensity of the emission lines. The low incidence fraction might be due to both the sensitivity limit and the fact that outflows are not isotropic but have a limited opening angle which results in a detection only when this is directed toward our line of sight. Evidence for outflows increases slightly with stellar mass and star-formation rate. The median velocity and mass loading factor (i.e., the ratio between mass outflow rate and star formation rate) of the outflowing ionized gas are 500 km s$^{-1}$ and $\eta=2.1^{+2.5}_{-1.6}$, respectively. These are two and 100 times higher, respectively than the typical values observed in local dwarf galaxies. These outflows are able to escape the gravitational potential of the galaxy and enrich the circum-galactic medium and, potentially, the inter-galactic medium. Our results indicate that outflows can significantly impact the star formation activity in low-mass galaxies within the first 2 Gyr of the Universe.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Feb 2024


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