Kepler-18b, c, and d: A system of three planets confirmed by transit timing variations, light curve validation, Warm-Spitzer photometry, and radial velocity measurements

W.D. Cochran, P.J. MacQueen, M. Endl, D.C. Fabrycky, J.J. Fortney, N. Miller, G. Torres, F. Fressin, J.-M. Désert, D. Ragozzine, D. Sasselov, J.A. Carter, S.N. Quinn, D.W. Latham, M.J. Holman, D. Charbonneau, J.F. Rowe, S.T. Bryson, S.B. Howell, W.J. BoruckiD.G. Koch, K. Uddin, P. Tenenbaum, M. Still, F. Mullally, J.J. Lissauer, K. Kinemuchi, J.M. Jenkins, C.E. Henze, M.R. Haas, D. Caldwell, E.J. Brugamyer, D.R. Ciardi, J.H. Steffen, J.N. Winn, S. Seager, B.-O. Demory, W.F. Welsh, K. Uddin, P. Tenenbaum, F. Mullally, J.M. Jenkins, D. Caldwell, M. Still, K. Kinemuchi, G.W. Marcy, H. Knutson, H. Isaacson, A. Howard, P.W. Lucas, J.A. Johnson, E. Horch, R.L. Gilliland, T.N. Gautier, E.B. Ford, D.A. Fischer, M. Everett, D. Deming, L. Buchhave, T.M. Brown, N. Batalha

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Abstract

We report the detection of three transiting planets around a Sun-like star, which we designate Kepler-18. The transit signals were detected in photometric data from the Kepler satellite, and were confirmed to arise from planets using a combination of large transit-timing variations (TTVs), radial velocity variations, Warm-Spitzer observations, and statistical analysis of false-positive probabilities. The Kepler-18 star has a mass of 0.97 M , a radius of 1.1 R , an effective temperature of 5345K, and an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = +0.19. The planets have orbital periods of approximately 3.5, 7.6, and 14.9 days. The innermost planet "b" is a "super-Earth" with a mass of 6.9 ± 3.4 M , a radius of 2.00 ± 0.10 R , and a mean density of 4.9 ± 2.4gcm. The two outer planets "c" and "d" are both low-density Neptune-mass planets. Kepler-18c has a mass of 17.3 ± 1.9 M , a radius of 5.49 ± 0.26 R , and a mean density of 0.59 0.07gcm , while Kepler-18d has a mass of 16.4 ± 1.4 M , a radius of 6.98 ± 0.33 R and a mean density of 0.27 ± 0.03gcm. Kepler-18c and Kepler-18d have orbital periods near a 2:1 mean-motion resonance, leading to large and readily detected TTVs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7
Number of pages19
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Volume197
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2011

Keywords

  • planetary systems
  • stars: individual (Kepler-18, KIC 8644288, 2MASS J19521906+4444467)
  • techniques: photometric
  • techniques: spectroscopic

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