Local examination of skin diffusion using FTIR spectroscopic imaging and multivariate target factor analysis

J. Tetteh, K. T. Mader, J. M. Andanson, W. J. McAuley, M. E. Lane, J. Hadgraft, S. G. Kazarian, J. C. Mitchell

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    23 Citations (Scopus)


    In the context of trans-dermal drug delivery it is very important to have mechanistic insight into the barrier function of the skin's stratum corneum and the diffusion mechanisms of topically applied drugs. Currently spectroscopic imaging techniques are evolving which enable a spatial examination of various types of samples in a dynamic way. ATR-FTIR imaging opens up the possibility to monitor spatial diffusion profiles across the stratum corneum of a skin sample. Multivariate data analyses methods based on factor analysis are able to provide insight into the large amount of spectroscopically complex and highly overlapping signals generated. Multivariate target factor analysis was used for spectral resolution and local diffusion profiles with time through stratum corneum. A model drug, 4-cyanophenol in polyethylene glycol 600 and water was studied. Results indicate that the average diffusion profiles between spatially different locations show similar profiles despite the heterogeneous nature of the biological sample and the challenging experimental set-up. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)246-256
    Number of pages11
    JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
    Issue number1-2
    Publication statusPublished - 29 May 2009


    • Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
    • Skin
    • Stratum corneum
    • Target factor analysis
    • Fourier transform infrared imaging
    • ATR-FTIR
    • CELLS
    • RANK


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