Membrane vesicles are secreted by growing bacterial cells and are important components of the bacterial secretome, with a role in delivering effector molecules that ultimately enable bacterial survival. Membrane vesicles of Clostridioides difficile likely contribute to pathogenicity and is a new area of research on which there is currently very limited information. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on membrane vesicle formation, content, methods of characterization and functions in Clostridia and model Gram-positive species.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationUpdates on Clostridioides difficile in Europe
Subtitle of host publicationAdvances in Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Public Health
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-031-42108-2
ISBN (Print)978-3-031-42107-5
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jan 2024

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019


  • C. difficile membrane vesicles
  • C. difficile vesicle function
  • Clostridia vesicle characteristics
  • Vesicle purification
  • Vesicle quantification


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