Fungi (17 species), oomycetous organisms (four species of Pythium) and a plasmodiophorid (Polymyxa graminis) were recorded in wheat roots analysed by cloning of the total ITS1/2 rDNA and sequencing of representative clones. Roots of a fourth successive wheat crop were inhabited mostly by fungal pathogens including Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Monographella nivalis var. nivalis, Ophiosphaerella sp. and Helgardia anguioides. Roots of a first wheat crop were inhabited mostly by P. graminis and saprotrophic Pythium species. Results on fungal diversity and density were compared with those obtained by pure culture isolation and morphotyping. Only M. nivalis var. nivalis and H. anguioides were identifed in wheat roots by both the molecular and the pure culture isolation methods. New and additional evidence for the ecological roles of the species recorded is discussed.