Molecular epidemiology of predominant and emerging Clostridioides difficile ribotypes

Adrian Adrian Martinez-Melendez, Rayo Morfin-Otero, Licet Villarreal-Trevino, Simon Baines, Adrian Camacho-Ortiz, Elvira Garza-Gonzalez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


There has been an increase in the incidence and severity of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) worldwide, and strategies to control, monitor, and diminish the associated morbidity and mortality have been developed. Several typing methods have been used for typing of isolates and studying the epidemiology of CDI; serotyping was the first typing method, but then was replaced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR ribotyping is now the gold standard method; however, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) schemes have been developed. New sequencing technologies have allowed comparing whole bacterial genomes to address genetic relatedness with a high level of resolution and discriminatory power to distinguish between closely related strains. Here, we review the most frequent C. difficile ribotypes reported worldwide, with a focus on their epidemiology and genetic characteristics.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105974
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Microbiological Methods
Early online date10 Jun 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2020


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