Nanostructural interface and strength of polymer composite scaffolds applied to intervertebral bone

Bankole I. Oladapo, Sikiru O. Ismail, A. V. Aderogba, F. T. Omigbodun, M. A. Olawumi, D. B. Olawade

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
17 Downloads (Pure)


The pores of bone tissue that play an important part in bone regeneration can emulate the areas of nanoparticles from porous scaffolds. This work evaluated a novel designed and developed nanostructure surface of polyetheretherketone-reduced graphene oxide, calcium hydroxyapatite (PEEK-rGO-cHAp) composite scaffolds of four different lattice structures. The scaffolds were fabricated through fused deposition modelling (FDM), as rGO-cHAp composite was coated on PEEK. The composite scaffolds’ mechanical strength and surface microstructure were studied, using different nanostructure methods of unit cell homogenisation and tensile test. The homogenisation method for the four lattice structures was designed and analysed to mimic spine bone structure. A new approach was introduced to homogenise the mechanical characteristics of a periodical lattice of 3D printing structures based on a semi-rigid frame unit cell. They were taking into consideration the impact of geometric approximation errors and joint tightening. A typical frame element with semi-rigid is integrated to assess combined stiffening effects in a discrete homogenisation process. The analysis was performed by considering the fundamental unit cell as a scaffold that defined the periodic pattern. Also, this study created an avenue to examine and improve the interfacial bonding between PEEK and rGO-cHAp scaffolds for biocompatibility and degradability, using surface functionalisation techniques. This work aimed to compare the manufacturing processes in an intervertebral spacer model and its lattice structure, present the characteristics of the PEEK biomaterial and some parameters used for its processing. In addition to its manufacturing part, a brief theory on the anatomy of the spine region was also presented. The object of the study was applied, which in this case was the cervical region, with a surgical approach through an anterior method to establish its practical applications and benefits in tissue engineering.
Original languageEnglish
Article number127190
Number of pages14
JournalColloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
Early online date16 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021


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