Protein methylation is a key post-translational modification whose effects on gene expression have been intensively studied over the last two decades. Recently, renewed interest in non-histone protein methylation has gained momentum for its role in regulating important cellular processes and the activity of many proteins, including transcription factors, enzymes, and structural complexes. The extensive and dynamic role that protein methylation plays within the cell also highlights its potential for bioengineering applications. Indeed, while synthetic histone protein methylation has been extensively used to engineer gene expression, engineering of non-histone protein methylation has not been fully explored yet. Here, we report the latest findings, highlighting how non-histone protein methylation is fundamental for certain cellular functions and is implicated in disease, and review recent efforts in the engineering of protein methylation.