Optical characterization of Diesel and water emulsion fuel injection sprays using shadowgraphy

David R. Emberson, Balazs Ihracska, Shahid Imran, Alvaro Diez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Diesel fuel and water emulsions have been shown to reduce emissions of NOx and PM from compression ignition engines. There is a lack of work examining the influence of emulsification on the sprays formed during injection. This work examines the spray cone angle and tip penetration of Diesel fuel and water
emulsions, containing 10% and 20% water (by mass). All experiments were conducted under nonreacting, non-vaporizing conditions in a constant volume pressure chamber filled with nitrogen. A focused shadowgraph system, with high speed photography, coupled with a research, high current LED system was used. Differences in the spray cone angle suggest the emulsification did have an effect for the injections at a pressure of 500 bar. Emulsification had no discernible effect on the spray tip penetration. Spray tip penetration showed agreement with previous trends in terms of proportionality to time after start of injection however agreement with models found in the literature was not consistent.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-262
Number of pages10
Early online date12 Jan 2016
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2016


  • Diesel water emulsions Fuel injection sprays Shadowgraph Cone angle


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