Planck Cold Clumps in the λ Orionis Complex. I: Discovery of an Extremely Young Class 0 Protostellar Object and a Proto-brown Dwarf Candidate in the Bright-rimmed Clump PGCC G192.32-11.88

T. Liu, Q. Zhang, K.-T. Kim, Y. Wu, C.W. Lee, J.-E. Lee, K. Tatematsu, M. Choi, M. Juvela, M.A. Thompson, P.F. Goldsmith, S.Y. Liu, H. Naomi, P. Koch, C. Henkel, P. Sanhueza, J. He, A. Rivera-Ingraham, K. Wang, M.R. CunninghamY.-W. Tang, S.-P. Lai, J. Yuan, D. Li, G. Fuller, M. Kang, Q. Nguyen Luong, H.B. Liu, I. Ristorcelli, J. Yang, Y. Xu, T. Hirota, D. Mardones, S.-L. Qin, H.-R. Chen, W. Kwon, F. Meng, H. Zhang, M.-R. Kim, H.-W. Yi

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Abstract

We are performing a series of observations with ground-based telescopes toward Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) in the λ Orionis complex in order to systematically investigate the effects of stellar feedback. In the particular case of PGCC G192.32-11.88, we discovered an extremely young Class 0 protostellar object (G192N) and a proto-brown dwarf candidate (G192S). G192N and G192S are located in a gravitationally bound bright-rimmed clump. The velocity and temperature gradients seen in line emission of CO isotopologues indicate that PGCC G192.32-11.88 is externally heated and compressed. G192N probably has the lowest bolometric luminosity (˜0.8 {L}⊙ ) and accretion rate (6.3 × 10-7 {M}⊙ yr-1) when compared with other young Class 0 sources (e.g., PACS Bright Red Sources) in the Orion complex. It has slightly larger internal luminosity (0.21 ± 0.01 {L}⊙ ) and outflow velocity (˜14 km s-1) than the predictions of first hydrostatic cores (FHSCs). G192N might be among the youngest Class 0 sources, which are slightly more evolved than an FHSC. Considering its low internal luminosity (0.08 ± 0.01 {L}⊙ ) and accretion rate (2.8 × 10-8 {M}⊙ yr-1), G192S is an ideal proto-brown dwarf candidate. The star formation efficiency (˜0.3%-0.4%) and core formation efficiency (˜1%) in PGCC G192.32-11.88 are significantly smaller than in other giant molecular clouds or filaments, indicating that the star formation therein is greatly suppressed owing to stellar feedback.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7
Number of pages28
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Volume222
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2016

Keywords

  • ISM: jets and outflows, ISM: kinematics and dynamics, stars: formation

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