Plant Flavonoids on Oxidative Stress-Mediated Kidney Inflammation

Seba Alsawaf, Fatema Alnuaimi, Saba Afzal, Rinku Mariam Thomas, Ayshwarya Lakshmi Chelakkot, Wafaa S. Ramadan, Rawad Hodeify, Rachel Matar, Maxime Merheb, Shoib Sarwar Siddiqui, Cijo George Vazhappilly, Zipei Zhang (Editor), Quancai Sun (Editor), Xian Wu (Editor)

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Simple Summary: Increased stress is often observed in patients with kidney diseases, contributing to renal injury progression. Flavonoids are naturally occurring plant compounds with known health benefits, including antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Flavonoids can protect the kidney by improving antioxidant status, ameliorating excess reactive oxygen species levels, and acting as Nrf2-mediators in generating antioxidant responses in the body. Flavonoids also modulate inflammatory markers, exert anti-inflammatory effects, and protect the cells from apoptotic cell death in the kidney. Interestingly, few clinical trials have reported a direct correlation between a flavonoid-rich diet and better kidney disease prognosis. However, flavonoids have a low bioavailability in the body, making it essential to understand better their molecular mechanism of action. We suggest that a flavonoid-rich diet could have promising nephroprotective effects and beneficial outcomes in treating patients with kidney diseases. Abstract: The kidney is susceptible to reactive oxygen species-mediated cellular injury resulting in glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, tubular cell apoptosis, and senescence, leading to renal failure, and is a significant cause of death worldwide. Oxidative stress-mediated inflammation is a key player in the pathophysiology of various renal injuries and diseases. Recently, flavonoids’ role in alleviating kidney diseases has been reported with an inverse correlation between dietary flavonoids and kidney injuries. Flavonoids are plant polyphenols possessing several health benefits and are distributed in plants from roots to leaves, flowers, and fruits. Dietary flavonoids have potent antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties and play essential roles in disease prevention. Flavonoids exert a nephroprotective effect by improving antioxidant status, ameliorating excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and reducing oxidative stress, by acting as Nrf2 antioxidant response mediators. Moreover, flavonoids play essential roles in reducing chemical toxicity. Several studies have demonstrated the effects of flavonoids in reducing oxidative stress, preventing DNA damage, reducing inflammatory cytokines, and inhibiting apoptosis-mediated cell death, thereby preventing or improving kidney injuries/diseases. This review covers the recent nephroprotective effects of flavonoids against oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in the kidney and their clinical advancements in renal therapy.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1717
Number of pages27
Issue number12
Early online date26 Nov 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 Nov 2022


  • Review
  • plant metabolites
  • bioavailability
  • inflammatory markers
  • reactive oxygen species
  • antioxidant
  • renal injury


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