Predicting Cloud Conditions in Substellar Mass Objects Using Ultracool Dwarf Companions

Emily Calamari, Jacqueline K. Faherty, Channon Visscher, Marina E. Gemma, Ben Burningham, Austin Rothermich

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Abstract

We present results from conducting a theoretical chemical analysis of a sample of benchmark companion brown dwarfs whose primary star is of type F, G or K. We summarize the entire known sample of these types of companion systems, termed "compositional benchmarks", that are present in the literature or recently published as key systems of study in order to best understand brown dwarf chemistry and condensate formation. Via mass balance and stoichiometric calculations, we predict a median brown dwarf atmospheric oxygen sink of $17.8^{+1.7}_{-2.3}\%$ by utilizing published stellar abundances in the local solar neighborhood. Additionally, we predict a silicate condensation sequence such that atmospheres with bulk Mg/Si $\lesssim$ 0.9 will form enstatite (MgSiO$_3$) and quartz (SiO$_2$) clouds and atmospheres with bulk Mg/Si $\gtrsim$ 0.9 will form enstatite and forsterite (Mg$_2$SiO$_4$) clouds. Implications of these results on C/O ratio trends in substellar mass objects and utility of these predictions in future modeling work are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number67
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Volume963
Issue number1
Early online date29 Feb 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 29 Feb 2024

Keywords

  • astro-ph.SR
  • astro-ph.EP
  • astro-ph.GA

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