Printing T3 and T4 oral drug combinations as a novel strategy for hypothyroidism

Mustafa Alomari, Parameswara R Vuddanda, Sarah J Trenfield, Cornelius C Dodoo, Sitaram Velaga, Abdul W Basit, Simon Gaisford

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    29 Citations (Scopus)


    Hypothyroidism is a chronic and debilitating disease that is estimated to affect 3% of the general population. Clinical experience has highlighted the synergistic value of combining triiodothyronine (T 3) and thyroxine (T 4) for persistent or recurrent symptoms. However, thus far a platform that enables the simultaneous and independent dosing of more than one drug for oral administration has not been developed. Thermal inkjet (TIJ) 2D printing is a potential solution to enable the dual deposition of T 3 and T 4 onto orodispersible films (ODFs) for therapy personalisation. In this study, a two-cartridge TIJ printer was modified such that it could print separate solutions of T 3 and T 4. Dose adjustments were achieved by printing solutions adjacent to each other, enabling therapeutic T 3 (15–50 μg) and T 4 dosages (60–180 μg) to be successfully printed. Excellent linearity was observed between the theoretical and measured dose for both T 3 and T 4 (R 2 = 0.982 and 0.985, respectively) by changing the length of the print objective (Y-value). Rapid disintegration of the ODFs was achieved (<45 s). As such, this study for the first time demonstrates the ability to produce personalised dose combinations by TIJ printing T 3 and T 4 onto the same substrate for oral administration.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)363-369
    Number of pages7
    JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
    Issue number1-2
    Early online date29 Jul 2017
    Publication statusPublished - 5 Oct 2018


    • 3D printing
    • Ink-jet printing
    • Oral drug delivery systems
    • Personalized medicines
    • Printed pharmaceutical products
    • Two-dimensional printing


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