Childhood pilocytic astrocytoma is the most frequent brain tumor affecting children. Proteomics analysis is currently considered a powerful tool for global evaluation of protein expression and has been widely applied in the field of cancer research. In the present study, a series of proteomics, genomics, and bioinformatics approaches were employed to identify, classify and characterize the proteome content of low-grade brain tumors as it appears in early childhood. Through bioinformatics database construction, protein profiles generated from pathological tissue samples were compared against profiles of normal brain tissues. Additionally, experiments of comparative genomic hybridization arrays were employed to monitor for genetic aberrations and sustain the interpretation and evaluation of the proteomic data. The current study confirms the dominance of MAPK pathway for the childhood pilocytic astrocytoma occurrence and novel findings regarding the ERK-2 expression are reported.