Revised Architecture and Two New Super-Earths in the HD 134606 Planetary System

Zhexing Li, Stephen R. Kane, Timothy D. Brandt, Tara Fetherolf, Paul Robertson, Jinglin Zhao, Paul A. Dalba, Robert A. Wittenmyer, R. Paul Butler, Matias R. Diaz, Steve B. Howell, Jeremy Bailey, Brad Carter, Elise Furlan, Crystal L. Gnilka, Hugh R. A. Jones, Simon O'Toole, Chris Tinney

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Abstract

Multiplanet systems exhibit a diversity of architectures that diverge from the solar system and contribute to the topic of exoplanet demographics. Radial velocity (RV) surveys form a crucial component of exoplanet surveys, as their long observational baselines allow for searches for more distant planetary orbits. This work provides a significantly revised architecture for the multiplanet system HD 134606 using both HARPS and UCLES RVs. We confirm the presence of previously reported planets b, c, and d with periods of 12.0897 − 0.0018 + 0.0019 , 58.947 − 0.054 + 0.056 , and 958.7 − 5.9 + 6.3 days and masses of 9.14 − 0.63 + 0.65 , 11.0 ± 1, and 44.5 ± 2.9 Earth masses, respectively, with the planet d orbit significantly revised to over double that originally reported. We report two newly detected super-Earths, e and f, with periods of 4.31943 − 0.00068 + 0.00075 and 26.9 − 0.017 + 0.019 days and masses of 2.31 − 0.35 + 0.36 and 5.52 − 0.73 + 0.74 Earth masses, respectively. In addition, we identify a linear trend in the RV time series, and the cause of this acceleration is deemed to be a newly detected massive companion with a very long orbital period. HD 134606 now displays four low-mass planets in a compact region near the star, one gas giant further out in the habitable zone, an additional companion in the outer regime, and a low-mass M dwarf stellar companion at large separation, making it an intriguing target for system formation/evolution studies. The location of planet d in the habitable zone proves to be an exciting candidate for future space-based direct imaging missions, whereas continued RV observations of this system are recommended for understanding the nature of the massive, long-period companion.
Original languageEnglish
Article number155
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalThe Astronomical Journal
Volume167
Issue number4
Early online date14 Mar 2024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2024

Keywords

  • astro-ph.EP
  • Exoplanet dynamics
  • Exoplanet detection methods
  • High contrast techniques
  • Exoplanet systems
  • Orbits
  • Radial velocity
  • Stellar activity
  • Exoplanets
  • Photometry
  • Astrometry

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