Social relations, firms and societies: A study of institutional embeddedness

Michael Brookes, Chris Brewster, Geoffrey Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Business systems theory holds that specific nations are locked onto a particular developmental trajectory reflecting differences in both institutional configuration and corresponding social agency; these variations are reflected in the role and structuring of firms and employment practices. This article uses an international survey of firms to test the extent to which specific national business systems are distinguished by the nature and extent of employer-employee interdependence and the degree of delegation to employees. The evidence provides empirical support for the theory, though with some need for subtle modification, showing continuing difference between the employment practices of nations and business systems.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Sociology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2005


  • Business systems theory
  • Employee involvement
  • Employer-employee interdependence
  • Industrial sociology


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