Source Camera Identification Techniques: A Survey

Chijioke Emeka Nwokeji, Akbar Sheikh-Akbari, Anatoliy Gorbenko, Iosif Mporas

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The successful investigation and prosecution of significant crimes, including child pornography, insurance fraud, movie piracy, traffic monitoring, and scientific fraud, hinge largely on the availability of solid evidence to establish the case beyond any reasonable doubt. When dealing with digital images/videos as evidence in such investigations, there is a critical need to conclusively prove the source camera/device of the questioned image. Extensive research has been conducted in the past decade to address this requirement, resulting in various methods categorized into brand, model, or individual image source camera identification techniques. This paper presents a survey of all those existing methods found in the literature. It thoroughly examines the efficacy of these existing techniques for identifying the source camera of images, utilizing both intrinsic hardware artifacts such as sensor pattern noise and lens optical distortion, and software artifacts like color filter array and auto white balancing. The investigation aims to discern the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques. The paper provides publicly available benchmark image datasets and assessment criteria used to measure the performance of those different methods, facilitating a comprehensive comparison of existing approaches. In conclusion, the paper outlines directions for future research in the field of source camera identification.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10020031
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Imaging
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jan 2024


  • camera brand source identification
  • camera colour filter array
  • camera model source identification
  • image lens optical distortion
  • sensor pattern noise
  • source camera identification


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