During the pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) evolution stage of a star, significant amounts of stellar mass are accreted during episodic accretion events, such as multi-decade FUor-type outbursts. Here, we present a near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up study of 33 high-amplitude (most with Delta Ks > 4 mag) variable sources discovered by the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) survey. Based on the spectral features, 25 sources are classified as eruptive young stellar objects (YSOs), including 15 newly identified FUors, six with long-lasting but EXor-like bursts of magnetospheric accretion and four displaying outflow-dominated spectra. By examining the photometric behaviours of eruptive YSOs, we found most FUor-type outbursts have higher amplitudes (Delta Ks and Delta W2), faster eruptive timescales and bluer infrared colours than the other outburst types. In addition, we identified seven post-main sequence variables apparently associated with deep dipping events and an eruptive star with deep AlO absorption bands resembling those seen in the V838 Mon stellar merger.