Stakeholder analysis in the application of cutting-edge digital visualisation technologies for urban flood risk management: A critical review

Vahid Bakhtiari, Farzad Piadeh, Albert S. Chen, Kourosh Behzadian

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Cutting-edge flood visualisation technologies are becoming increasingly important in managing urban flood risks, particularly from the perspective of stakeholders who play a crucial role in controlling and reducing the risks associated with flood events. This review study provides a comprehensive overview of stakeholder analysis in this context, highlighting gaps in current research and paving the way for future investigations. For this purpose, scientific literature and critical analysis are conducted based on identified relevant research works to map the mutual role of stakeholders in this context. This study categorises cutting-edge technologies into four groups - virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality, and digital twin - and explores their adoption in engaging various stakeholders across the five key stages of risk management: prevention, mitigation, preparation, response, and recovery. Results show that existing research has primarily concentrated on the support to water utilities and the communication with the general public. However, there is a noticeable gap in research regarding the comprehensive engagement of important stakeholders such as policy-makers, researchers, and insurance providers. Furthermore, the study highlights disparities in the involvement of stakeholders in damage assessment studies, particularly with a lack of representation from policy-makers and researchers. Finally, the study introduces the concept of overlooked key stakeholders and the interconnected impacts they have, which has received relatively little attention in previous research.
Original languageEnglish
Article number121426
Number of pages15
JournalExpert Systems with Applications
Issue number121426
Early online date4 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - 2 Feb 2024


  • Augmented reality
  • Digital twin
  • lood risk management
  • Mixed reality
  • Stakeholder analysis
  • Urban flooding
  • Virtual reality
  • Flood risk management


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