Stereoscopic Visualization and 3D Technologies in Medical Endoscopic Teleoperation

Salvatore Livatino, Lucio De Paolis, Michele D'Agostino, Alessandro Zocco, Alessio Agrimi, Alberto De Santis, Luisa Vittoria Bruno, Michele Lapresa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


3D stereoscopic visualization provides a user with higher comprehension of remote environments in teleoperation when compared to 2D viewing. Works in the literature have shown how stereo vision may contribute to improving perception of some depth cues, but it is hard to find work assessing
stereoscopic-3D viewing in telenavigation tasks involving medical flexible endoscopes. Nonetheless, the increased level of depth awareness provided by stereo-viewing is remarkable, which facilitates endoscope teleguide, teleexploration, and teleintervention, leading to accurate navigation and faster decision-making. This work assesses stereoscopic-3D visualization in medical endoscopic teleoperation. We evaluate the usability of a flexible stereoscopic
Bronchoscope. Twenty test-users are asked to teleguide a virtual endoscope, which operates in a realistically simulated bronchus environment under different viewing conditions and displays.
The evaluation involves 7 systems (from laptops to wall-screen and HMD), 4 approaches to stereo viewing (colored-anaglyph, polarized-filters, shutter-glasses and separated displays); 5 types of display technologies (DLP, CRT, LCD, LED, OLED). The results show a strong improvement in users’ performance when
the endoscope-camera view is (depth-) enhanced by stereo viewing.
Users’ performance and appreciation may vary in different systems, which is also commented in our paper. This study supports system designers in making informed decisions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)525-535
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number1
Early online date8 Jul 2014
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


  • Stereoscopic-3D Visualization
  • Teleoperation
  • 3D Displays
  • Stereo Vision
  • Endoscopic Intervention
  • Virtual Reality


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