The Application of non-linear methods to quantify changes to movement dynamics during running: A scoping review

Ben Hunter, Bettina Karsten, Andrew Greenhalgh, Mark Burnley, Daniel Muniz

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The aim of this scoping review was to evaluate research approaches that quantify changes to non-linear movement dynamics during running in response to fatigue, different speeds, and fitness levels. PubMed and Scopus were used to identify appropriate research articles. After the selection of eligible studies, study details and participant characteristics were extracted and tabulated to identify methodologies and findings. Twenty-seven articles were included in the final analysis. To evaluate non-linearities in the time series, a range of approaches were identified including motion capture, accelerometery, and foot switches. Common methods of analysis included measures of fractal scaling, entropy, and local dynamic stability. Conflicting findings were evident when studies examined non-linear features in fatigued states when compared to non-fatigued. More pronounced alterations to movement dynamics are evident when running speed is changed markedly. Greater fitness levels resulted in more stable and predictable running patterns. The mechanisms by which these changes are underpinned require further examination. These could include the physiological demand of running, biomechanical constraints of the runner, and the attentional demands of the task. Moreover, the practical implications are yet to be elucidated. This review has identified gaps in the literature which should be addressed for further understanding of the field.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)481-494
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Issue number5
Early online date17 Jun 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 Jun 2023


  • non-linear analysis
  • running
  • fatigue
  • review
  • Non-linear analysis


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