The Chemical Evolution of Fluorine in the Bulge - High-resolution K-band spectra of giants in three fields

H. Jönsson, N. Ryde, G. M. Harper, K. Cunha, M. Schultheis, K. Eriksson, C. Kobayashi, V. V. Smith, M. Zoccali

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Possible main formation sites of F in the Universe include AGB stars, the {\nu}-process in Type II SNe, and/or W-R stars. The importance of the W-R stars has theoretically been questioned and they are probably not needed in the modelling of the chemical evolution of F in the solar neighborhood. It has, however, been suggested that W-R stars are indeed needed to explain the chemical evolution of F in the Bulge. The molecular spectral data of the often used HF-molecule has not been presented in a complete and consistent way and has recently been debated in the literature. In this article we determine the [F/O] vs. [O/H] trend in the Bulge to investigate the possible contribution from W-R stars. Additionally, we present here a HF line list for the K- and L-bands (including the often used 23358.33 {\AA} line) and an accompanying partition function. The F abundances were determined using spectral fitting from hi-res NIR spectra of eight K giants recorded by the spectrograph CRIRES. We have also re-analyzed five previously published Bulge giants using our new HF molecular data. We find that the F-O abundance in the Bulge probably cannot be explained with chemical evolution models including only AGB-stars and the {\nu}-process in SNe Type II, i.e. a significant amount of F production in W-R stars is likely needed to explain the F abundance in the Bulge. Concerning the HF line list, we find that a possible reason for the inconsistencies in the literature, with two different excitation energies being used, is two different definitions of the zero-point energy for the HF molecule and therefore also two accompanying different dissociation energies. Both line lists are correct, as long as the corresponding consistent partition function is used in the spectral synthesis. However, we suspect this has not been the case in several earlier works leading to F abundances 0.3 dex too high.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)A122
Number of pages11
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Publication statusPublished - 17 Apr 2014


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