Neuroinflammation plays an integral role in the progression of neurodegeneration. In this study we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of different classes of flavonoids (flavanones, flavanols and anthocyanidins) in primary mixed glial cells. We found that the flavanones naringenin and hesperetin and the flavanols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, but not the anthocyanidins cyanidin and pelargonidin, attenuated LPS/IFN-gamma-induced TNF-alpha production in glial cells. Naringenin also inhibited LPS/IFN-gamma-induced iNOS expression and nitric oxide production in glial cells, thus showing the strongest anti-inflammatory activity among all flavonoids tested. Moreover, naringenin protected against inflammatory-induced neuronal death in a primary neuronal-glial co-culture system. Naringenin also inhibited LPS/IFN-gamma-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and downstream signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) in LPS/IFN-gamma stimulated primary mixed glial cells. Taken together, our results suggest that naringenin may produce an anti-inflammatory effect in LPS/IFN-gamma stimulated glial cells that may be due to its interaction with p38 signalling cascades and the STAT-1 transcription factor.
- Cells, Cultured
- Coculture Techniques
- STAT1 Transcription Factor
- Signal Transduction
- p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases