The management of locally advanced muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) often necessitates neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to eliminate any micro-metastatic disease prior to definitive radical cystectomy (RC) and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). The most common imaging techniques traditionally used during this process are computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both of which lack a high sensitivity for nodal staging. In this paper, we attempt to review the evolving indications of F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computerised tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging, in the pre-clinical and post-treatment staging of bladder cancer, with a focus on its ability to evaluate response to NAC. We concluded that use of FDG-PET/CT allows for improved nodal staging and metastatic disease detection, compared to traditional imaging modalities. This enabled earlier detection of tumour response to NAC and/or residual disease, impacting factors such as duration of chemotherapy, with its associated adverse effects, and timing of surgical intervention. However, further studies are required to reliably assess its impact on both overall and disease-free survival.
|Number of pages
|Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
|Early online date
|6 Jul 2022
|Published - 30 Oct 2022