Context. Relativistic electrons and magnetic fields permeate the intra-cluster medium (ICM) and manifest themselves as diffuse sources of synchrotron emission observable at radio wavelengths, namely radio halos and radio relics. Although there is broad consensus that the formation of these sources is connected to turbulence and shocks in the ICM, the details of the required particle acceleration, the strength and morphology of the magnetic field in the cluster volume, and the influence of other sources of high-energy particles are poorly known. Aims. Sufficiently large samples of radio halos and relics, which would allow us to examine the variation among the source population and pinpoint their commonalities and differences, are still missing. At present, due to the physical properties of the sources and the capabilities of existing facilities, large numbers of these sources are easiest to detect at low radio frequencies, where they shine brightly. Methods. We examined the low-frequency radio emission from all 309 clusters in the second catalog of Planck Sunyaev Zel' dovich detected sources that lie within the 5634 deg2 covered by the Second Data Release of the LOFAR Two-meter Sky Survey (LoTSS-DR2). We produced LOFAR images at different resolutions, with and without discrete sources subtracted, and created overlays with optical and X-ray images before classifying the diffuse sources in the ICM, guided by a decision tree. Results. Overall, we found 83 clusters that host a radio halo and 26 that host one or more radio relics (including candidates). About half of them are new discoveries. The detection rate of clusters that host a radio halo and one or more relics in our sample is 30 ± 11% and 10 ± 6%, respectively. Extrapolating these numbers, we anticipate that once LoTSS covers the entire northern sky it will provide the detection of 251 ± 92 clusters that host a halo and 83 ± 50 clusters that host at least one relic from Planck clusters alone. All images and results produced in this work are publicly available via the project website.
- Galaxies: clusters: general
- Radiation mechanisms: thermal
- Radiation mechanisms: non-thermal
- Galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium