The rise of solo dining: prediction and consumer profiling

Koay Kian Yeik, Ong DLT, Izian Idris, Nurfarah Sabrina, Chee Wei Cheah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aim of this study is twofold: first, to investigate the factors that affect consumers’ intentions to dine alone, drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB); and second, to segment consumers based on their motives for solo dining. The TPB is chosen as the theoretical framework because it is regarded as a comprehensive social-psychological model that can explain an individual’s intentions well. A total of 207 participants from Malaysia completed an online questionnaire using the convenience sampling method. The collected data were subjected to statistical analyses, including partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and cluster analysis. Our findings show that only attitudes have a significant positive influence on intentions. Furthermore, entertainment and economic factors are found to be significant factors of attitudes. Findings from cluster analysis show four diverse groups: enjoyers, economical diners, socializers, and relaxers. This study represents the first attempt to explore consumers’ solo dining intentions through the lens of the theory of planned behavior. Moreover, by identifying four distinct segments of solo dining consumers, the findings offer valuable insights for restaurant owners seeking to effectively target this growing market. Overall, this study not only examines the factors influencing consumers’ solo dining intentions but also segments the types of solo diners, extending the utility of the TPB.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Foodservice Business Research
Issue number3
Early online date21 Jan 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 21 Jan 2024


  • Solo dining
  • Eating alone
  • Solitary dining
  • Theory of planned behaviour
  • cluster analysis


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