Three-Phase Methodology: Antimicrobial Stewardship Before and During COVID-19 in Secondary Care.

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This study addresses the critical issue of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) in secondary care before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The three-phase methodology includes a systematic literature review, a retrospective analysis of medical records, and a prospective survey study. The literature review, guided by the PICOS framework and PRISMA guidelines, explored AMS strategies from 2000 to 2021. The retrospective study assessed antibiotic prescribing patterns at Bedfordshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, using a comprehensive sample of patient records. The prospective survey evaluated healthcare professionals' (HCPs) perceptions of antibiotic prescribing pre and post-pandemic. This comprehensive approach offers valuable insights into AMS implementation and effectiveness in the face of evolving healthcare challenges, notably during the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting the need for continual assessment and adaptation of AMS practices.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jan 2024


  • three-phase extraction
  • three-phase methodology
  • three-phase
  • Research Method
  • Antibiotic research
  • Microbiology
  • Biology and life sciences
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • antimicrobial stewardship
  • Antimicrobial stewardship programme
  • Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods
  • Public Health England
  • Public health intervention
  • antibiotic classification
  • Antibiotic potentiation
  • antibiotic resistance
  • antibiotic utilitsation
  • antibiotics
  • Antibiotic safety
  • antibiotic duration
  • COVID-19/drug therapy
  • COVID19 pneumonia
  • COVID-19/prevention & control
  • COVID‐19
  • Medical Records Review
  • Medical Records
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Prospective studies
  • Systematic Review


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