Towards a Comprehensive Evaluation of the Environmental and Health Impacts of Shipping Emissions

J. Kukkonen, E. Fridell, J. P. Jalkanen, J. Moldanova, L. Ntziachristos, A. Grigoriadis, F. Barmpas, G. Tsegas, A. Maragkidou, Mikhail Sofiev, T. Grönholm, E. Majamäki, J. Borken-Kleefeld, R. S. Sokhi, P. R. Tiwari, U. A. Ozdemir, V. Zervakis, E. Krasakopoulou, I. M. Hassellöv, E. YtrebergI. Williams, M. Hudson, L. Zapata-Restrepo, L. R. Hole, M. Aghito, O. Breivik, M. Petrovic, S. Rodriguez-Mozaz, A. Ktoris, M. Neophytou, A. Monteiro, M. A. Russo, F. Oikonomou, P. Arampatzi, A. Gondikas, A. Marcomini, E. Giubilato, L. Calgaro, J. J.K. Jaakkola, S. P. Kiihamäki, R. Aittamaa, G. Broström, M. Hassellöv, J. Tamminen, F. Nicolas, J. Kaitaranta, M. Granberg, K. Magnusson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


We present a new concept for marine research, applied in the EU-funded project EMERGE, “Evaluation, control and Mitigation of the EnviRonmental impacts of shippinG Emissions” (2020–2024; ). For the first time, both the various marine and atmospheric impacts of the shipping sector have been and will be comprehensively analyzed, using a concerted modelling and measurements framework. The experimental part of the project focuses on five European geographical case studies in different ecologically vulnerable regions, and a mobile onboard case study. The EMERGE consortium has also developed a harmonised and integrated modelling framework to assess the combined impacts of shipping emissions, both (i) on the marine ecosystems and (ii) the atmospheric environment. The first results include substantial refinements of a range of models to be applied, especially those for the STEAM and OpenDrift models. In particular, the STEAM (Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model) model has been extended to allow for the effects of atmospheric and oceanographic factors on the fuel consumption and emissions of the ships. The OpenDrift model has been improved to take into account the partitioning, degradation, and volatilization of pollutants in water. The predicted emission and discharge values have been used as input for both regional scale atmospheric dispersion models, such as WRF-CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting—Community Multiscale Air Quality Model) and SILAM (System for Integrated modeLling of Atmospheric composition), and water quality and circulation models, such as OpenDrift (Open source model for the drifting of substances in the ocean) and Delft3D (oceanographic model). The case study regions are Eastern Mediterranean, Northern Adriatic Sea, the Lagoon of Aveiro, the Solent Strait and the Öresund Strait. We have also conducted a substantial part of the experimental campaigns scheduled in the project. The final assessment will include the benefits and costs of control and mitigation options affecting water quality, air pollution exposure, health impacts, climate forcing, and ecotoxicological effects and bioaccumulation of pollutants in marine biota.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationITM 2021: Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXVIII
EditorsClemens Mensink, Oriol Jorba
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-031-12786-1
ISBN (Print)978-3-031-12785-4, 978-3-031-12788-5
Publication statusPublished - 22 Oct 2022
Event38th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Application, ITM 2021 - Barcelona, Spain
Duration: 18 Oct 202122 Oct 2021

Publication series

NameSpringer Proceedings in Complexity
ISSN (Print)2213-8684
ISSN (Electronic)2213-8692


Conference38th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Application, ITM 2021
Abbreviated titleITM 2021
Internet address


  • Adriatic Sea
  • Aveiro
  • Eastern Mediterranean
  • Environmental impacts
  • Health impacts
  • Impacts
  • OpenDrift
  • Shipping
  • Solent Strait
  • Öresund Strait


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