Trimming of sheep spinal cord by waterjet; an experimental study

Reza Derakhshan, Mohammad Ahmadian, Mahmoud Chizari, Hadi Samimi-Ardestani

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The spinal cord is a structure of nervous tissue that primarily transmits nerve signals from the motor cortex to the body and from the afferent fibers of the sensory neurons to the sensory cortex. It is enveloped by three layers of meninges. Covering provides a supportive framework for the cerebral and cranial vasculature and protects the central nervous system (CNS) from mechanical damage. Surgical operation in the vicinity of the spinal cord is complicated and risky because it exposes it to probably irreversible damage. To reduce the risk of these operations, attempts have been made to remove the tumor using safer methods like waterjet operation. In these methods, the waterjet and spinal cord interaction are inevitable. To secure interaction of operation, a standard development of waterjet criteria is necessary.
In this study, a system of waterjet is designed to perform sheep spinal cord as a tissue with a good resemblance to the human spinal cord. Effects of interaction between waterjet and sheep spinal cord are investigated to define a safe operation threshold. The impact of the liquid density of waterjet on failure criteria of spinal cord surgery is also investigated. Results show that meninges are stiff enough to protect the sheep spinal cord from rupture for pressures up to 8 bar; however internal spinal cord tissue cannot be guaranteed any damage. Three essential parameters represent the spinal cord meninges and spinal cord deformation during the tests. These parameters lead us to provide standard criteria for damage prevention of the spinal cord.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberE17872
Number of pages12
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jul 2023


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