Use of mixed gas pneumoperitoneum during minimally invasive surgery: a systematic review of human and mouse modelled laparoscopic interventions

Leon Chen, Prokar Dasgupta, Nikhil Vasdev

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The formation of pneumoperitoneum involves the process of inflating the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopic and typically uses CO2 as the insufflation gas. This review aims to identify ideal gas mixtures for establishing the pneumoperitoneum with animal and human studies undertaken up to the writing of this review. A systematic search of PubMed, OVID, and was performed to identify studies on the utilisation of mixed gases in laparoscopic surgery, including non-randomised/randomised trials, animal and human studies, and studies with inflating pressures between 12 and 16 mmHg. ROBINS-I and RoB2 tool was used to assess the risk of bias. A narrative synthesis of results was performed due to the heterogeneity of the studies. 5 studies from the database search and 5 studies from citation search comprising 128 animal subjects and 61 human patients were found. These studies collated results based on adhesion formation (6 studies), pain scores (2 studies) and other outcomes, with results favouring the use of carbon dioxide + 10% nitrous oxide + 4% oxygen. This has shown a significant reduction in adhesion formation, pain scores and inflammation. The use of this gas mixture provides promising results for future practice. Several of the studies available require larger sample sizes to develop a more definitive answer on the effects of different gas mixtures. Furthermore, the number of confounding factors in randomised trials should be reduced so that each component of the current suggested gas mixture can be tested for safety and efficacy.
Original languageEnglish
Article number215
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Robotic Surgery
Issue number1
Early online date17 May 2024
Publication statusPublished - 17 May 2024


  • Adhesions
  • Mixed gas
  • Complications
  • Pneumoperitoneum
  • Laparoscopy
  • Tissue Adhesions/prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Laparoscopy/methods
  • Nitrous Oxide/administration & dosage
  • Insufflation/methods
  • Carbon Dioxide/administration & dosage
  • Oxygen/administration & dosage
  • Animals
  • Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods
  • Models, Animal
  • Mice
  • Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial/methods


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