The objective of this study was to validate the Chinese version of the Minimum Data Set-Resident Assessment Instrument (MDS-RAI) in Hong Kong Chinese elders. The respondents were 83 people aged 65 years or older who lived at a care and attention home in Hong Kong. Firstly, test-retest reliabilities of four Resident Assessment Protocol (RAP) scales (including cognitive loss/dementia, communication, activities of daily living/rehabilitation potential, and mood symptoms) were examined and we found acceptable test-retest reliability. Secondly, inter-rater reliability of these four RAPs was found to be acceptable. Concurrent validity was also obtained for these four areas in MDS-RAI and most associations were in the range from 0.4 to 0.6. Results suggest that the Chinese version of MDS-RAI is a reliable and valid assessment tool for elderly Chinese residents in a long-term care facility in Hong Kong.