Winternitz stack protocols for embedded systems and IoT

Alex Shafarenko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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This paper proposes and evaluates a new bipartite post-quantum digital signature protocol based on Winternitz chains and an oracle. Mutually mistrustful Alice and Bob are able to agree and sign a series of documents in a way that makes it impossible (within the assumed security model) to repudiate their signatures. The number of signatures supported by a single public key is still limited, though by a large number. However, the security of the signature scheme is not diminished by repeated application, so when the capacity of a public key is exhausted the last transaction can be used to agree a new key. Some ramifications are discussed, security parameters evaluated and an application area delineated for the proposed concept.
Original languageEnglish
Article number34
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
Issue number1
Early online date4 Apr 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 4 Apr 2024


  • Signature protocol
  • Post-quantum
  • Hash-based signature


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