University of Hertfordshire

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  • 25C-NBOMe

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  • Francesco Saverio Bersani
  • Ornella Corazza
  • Gabriella Albano
  • Giuseppe Valeriani
  • Rita Santacroce
  • Flamina Bolzan
  • Eduardo Cinosi
  • Pierluigi Simonato
  • Giovanni Martinotti
  • Giuseppe Bersani
  • Fabrizio Schifano
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Original languageEnglish
Article number734749
Number of pages6
JournalBioMed Research International
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jul 2014


Introduction. The use of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) has rapidly increased as well as their online availability. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the nature and the risks associated with 25C-NBOMe, which has recently appeared in the drug market. Methods. A systematic analysis of the scientific literature and a qualitative assessment of online and media resources (e.g., e-newsgroups, chat-rooms, and e-newsletters) in 10 languages were carried out. Results. 25C-NBOMe is sold online as legal LSD or as research chemical with different designations such as “Boom,” “Pandora,” “Holland film,” or “N-bomb.” It is a partial agonist of 5-HT2A receptors. It is usually ingested orally/sublingually and, less commonly, nasally, through injection, vaginally, rectally, and smoked. Its effects include sublingual numbing, stimulation, “body high,” hallucinations, dissociation, and anxiety. 25C-NBOMe presents high risk of overdoses; acute toxicity and fatalities have been reported. Conclusions. 25C-NBOMe consumption represents an emerging phenomenon with potential harmful effects. Its use is increased by its online availability at low costs. Health and other professionals should be informed about this new trend of substance use


Copyright © 2014 Francesco Saverio Bersani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

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