University of Hertfordshire

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3D printing of PEEK and its composite to increase biointerfaces as a biomedical material - A review

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Original languageEnglish
Article number111726
Number of pages9
JournalColloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces
Early online date26 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021


Poly ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is a polymer with better lignin biocompatibility than other polymers. It is good for biomedical engineering applications. This research summarises the outcomes of an evaluation conducted on PEEK material composites, such as cellular calcium hydroxyapatite (CHAp) for medical applications. Prospects of PEEK for medical implant are highlighted. Critical analysis and review on 3D printing of PEEK, CHAp and their biological macromolecular behaviours are presented. An electronic search was carried out on Scupos database, Google search and peer-reviewed papers published in the last ten years. Because of the extraordinary strength and biological behaviours of PEEK and its composite of CHAp, 3D-printed PEEK has several biomedical applications, and its biological macromolecular behaviour leads to health sustainability. This work highlights its biological macromolecular behaviours as a bone implant material and the optimum 3D printing process for PEEK and CHAp for medical applications. The current problems with printing PEEK and CHAp are investigated along with their possible uses. Possible solutions to improve the 3D printability of PEEK and CHAp are explained based on scientific mechanisms. This detailed report stands to benefit both scientific community and medical industry to enhance 3D printing concepts for PEEK and CHAp.


© 2020 Published by Elsevier. This is the accepted manuscript version of an article which has been published in final form at

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