University of Hertfordshire

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3D Selection of 167 Substellar Companions to Nearby Stars

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Fabo Feng
  • R. Paul Butler
  • Steven S. Vogt
  • Matthew S. Clement
  • C. G. Tinney
  • Kaiming Cui
  • Masataka Aizawa
  • J. Bailey
  • Jennifer Burt
  • B. D. Carter
  • Jeffrey D. Crane
  • Francesco Flammini Dotti
  • Bradford Holden
  • Bo Ma
  • Masahiro Ogihara
  • Rebecca Oppenheimer
  • S. J. O’Toole
  • Stephen A. Shectman
  • Robert A. Wittenmyer
  • Sharon X. Wang
  • D. J. Wright
  • Yifan Xuan
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Original languageEnglish
Number of pages27
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Publication statusPublished - 26 Aug 2022


We analyze 5108 AFGKM stars with at least five high-precision radial velocity points, as well as Gaia and Hipparcos astrometric data, utilizing a novel pipeline developed in previous work. We find 914 radial velocity signals with periods longer than 1000 days. Around these signals, 167 cold giants and 68 other types of companions are identified, through combined analyses of radial velocity, astrometry, and imaging data. Without correcting for detection bias, we estimate the minimum occurrence rate of the wide-orbit brown dwarfs to be 1.3%, and find a significant brown-dwarf valley around 40 M Jup. We also find a power-law distribution in the host binary fraction beyond 3 au, similar to that found for single stars, indicating no preference of multiplicity for brown dwarfs. Our work also reveals nine substellar systems (GJ 234 B, GJ 494 B, HD 13724 b, HD 182488 b, HD 39060 b and c, HD 4113 C, HD 42581 d, HD 7449 B, and HD 984 b) that have previously been directly imaged, and many others that are observable at existing facilities. Depending on their ages, we estimate that an additional 10–57 substellar objects within our sample can be detected with current imaging facilities, extending the imaged cold (or old) giants by an order of magnitude.


© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, to view a copy of the license, see:

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