University of Hertfordshire

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4,4’-dimethylaminorex (‘4,4’-DMAR’; ‘Serotoni’) misuse; a web-based study

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Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2575
JournalHuman Psychopharmacology: Human and Experimental
Early online date1 May 2017
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jun 2017


Background: 4,4′-DMAR (4,4’-dimethylaminorex; ‘Serotoni’) is a potent stimulant drug which has recently been associated with a number of fatalities in Europe. Over the last few years, online communities have emerged as important resources for disseminating levels of technical knowledge on novel psychoactive substances/NPS.
Objective: Analysing the information provided by the fora communities on 4,4’-DMAR use, additionally critical reviewing the available evidence-based literature on this topic.
Methods: Different website drug fora were identified. A critical review of the existing evidence-based literature was undertaken. Individuation and analysis of qualitative data from the identified website fora were performed.
Results: The combined search results identified six website fora from which a range of qualitative data on recurring themes was collected. These themes included: routes of administration and
doses; desired effects; adverse effects; comparison with other drugs; association with other drugs; medications self administered to reverse 4,4’-DMAR action; overall impression; provision of harm reduction advice.
Conclusions: Although being characterized by a number of methodological limitations, the social networks’ web monitoring approach (netnography) may be helpful to better understand some of the clinical and psychopharmacological issues pertaining to a range of NPS, including 4,4’-DMAR, for which only extremely little, if any, scientific knowledge is available


This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Loi B, Zloh M, De Luca MA, Pintori N, Corkery J, Schifano F. 4,4′-Dimethylaminorex (“4,4′-DMAR”; “Serotoni”) misuse: A Web-based study. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp. 2017;32:e2575, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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