University of Hertfordshire

  • Duncan Stewart
  • Marie Van der Merwe
  • Len Bowers
  • Alan Simpson
  • Julia Jones
View graph of relations
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-24
Number of pages12
JournalIssues in Mental Health Nursing
Publication statusPublished - 7 May 2010


This review examines the nature and effectiveness of interventions to reduce the use of mechanical restraint and seclusion among adult psychiatric inpatients. Thirty-six post-1960 empirical studies were identified. The interventions were diverse, but commonly included new restraint or seclusion policies, staffing changes, staff training, case review procedures, or crisis management initiatives. Most studies reported reduced levels of mechanical restraint and/or seclusion, but the standard of evidence was poor. The research did not address which programme components were most successful. More attention should be paid to understanding how interventions work, particularly from the perspective of nursing staff, an issue that is largely overlooked.

ID: 11781802