University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

By the same authors


  • Sally El-Kateb
  • Sivakumar Sridharan
  • Ken Farrington
  • Stanley Fan
  • Andrew Davenport
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1342-1347
Number of pages6
JournalKidney International
Early online date18 Sep 2016
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2016


Dialysis adequacy is traditionally based on urea clearance, adjusted for total body volume (Kt/Vurea), and clinical guidelines recommend a Kt/Vurea target for peritoneal dialysis. We wished to determine whether adjusting dialysis dose by resting and total energy expenditure would alter the delivered dialysis dose. The resting and total energy expenditures were determined by equations based on doubly labeled isotopic water studies and adjusted Kturea for resting energy expenditure and total energy expenditure in 148 peritoneal dialysis patients (mean age, 60.6 years; 97 male [65.5%]; 54 diabetic [36.5%]). The mean resting energy expenditure was 1534 kcal/d, and the total energy expenditure was 1974 kcal/day. Using a weekly target Kt/V of 1.7, Kt was calculated using V measured by bioimpedance and the significantly associated (r = 0.67) Watson equation for total body water. Adjusting Kt for resting energy expenditure showed a reduced delivered dialysis dose (ml/kcal per day) for women versus men (5.5 vs. 6.2), age under versus over 65 years (5.6 vs. 6.4), weight <65 versus >80 kg (5.8 vs. 6.1), low versus high comorbidity (5.9 vs. 6.2), all of which were significant. Adjusting for the total energy expenditure showed significantly reduced dosing for those employed versus not employed (4.3 vs. 4.8), a low versus high frailty score (4.5 vs. 5.0) and nondiabetic versus diabetic (4.6 vs. 4.9). Thus, the current paradigm for a single target Kt/Vurea for all peritoneal dialysis patients does not take into account energy expenditure and metabolic rate and may lead to lowered dialysis delivery for the younger, more active female patient.

ID: 13324019