University of Hertfordshire


  • 2825999

    Accepted author manuscript, 854 KB, PDF document

  • Diogo Montalvão
  • Qiu Shengwen
  • Manuel Freitas
View graph of relations
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)172-179
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C: Materials for Biological Applications
Early online date31 Mar 2014
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2014


The aim of this paper is to analyze the cyclic performance of two different Ni-Ti endodontic rotary files made from different alloys under bending using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). When experimentation is not available, this is not a trivial task and most papers on the subject rely on static analysis only. Two Ni-Ti rotary instruments are selected, ProFile GT and a GT Series X (GTX). The latter file is made from M-Wire, which has been thermo-mechanically processed to have larger flexibility, according to its manufacturer. The mechanical response was studied by considering different scenarios in the FEA package, in which the material properties were introduced according to existing literature. The method and results are presented and discussed so that this paper can be used as a guideline for future works. Although not fully reflective of the instrument’s behavior in a dynamic rotation intra-canal system, the models used constitute a good approximation when a comparison between two instruments is at stake. It is shown that the GTX file has a lower risk of fatigue fracture during its clinical use when compared to the GT file, especially when the root canal makes the file deform into an extreme geometry. However, if the root canal does not make the file deform more than a certain amount, the GT file is equally good from the point of view of mechanical endurance.


This document is the Accepted Manuscript version, made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License ( The final, definitive version is available online at doi:

ID: 2825999