University of Hertfordshire

  • Armin Razmjoo
  • L Gakenia Kaigutha
  • M.A. Vaziri rad
  • M. Marzband
  • A Davarpanah
  • Mouloud Denai
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-57
JournalRenewable Energy
Early online date15 Sep 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Sep 2020


Reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will have a positive impact on the environment by preventing adverse effects of global warming. To achieve an eco-environment, the primary source of energy needs to shift from conventional fossil fuels to clean renewable energy sources. Thus, increased utilization of renewable energy overtime reduces air pollution and contributes to securing sustainable energy supply to satisfy the future energy needs. The main purpose of this study is to investigate several sustainable hybrid renewable systems for electricity production in Iran. In this regard, critical indicators that have the strongest impact on the environment and energy sustainability are presented in this study. After a comprehensive review of environmental issues, data was collected from the meteorological organization and a techno-economic assessment was performed using HOMER software. It was concluded that the hybrid configuration composed of photovoltaic (PV), wind turbine, diesel generator and battery produced the best outcome with an energy cost of 0.151 $/kWh and 15.6% return on investment. In addition, the results showed that with higher a renewable fraction exceeding 72%, this hybrid system can prevent more than 2000 Kg of CO2 emission per household annually. Although large excess of electricity generation is a challenge in stand-alone systems, by using the fuel cell, electrolyzer, and hydrogen tank unit, the amount of energy loss was reduced to less than one-sixth. These results show that selecting useful indicators such as appropriate implementation policies of new enabling technologies and investment on renewable energy resources, has three potential benefits namely: CO2 reduction, greater sustainable electricity generation and provides an economic justification for stakeholders to invest in the renewable energy sector.

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