University of Hertfordshire


  • Monsey McLeod
  • Raheelah Ahmad
  • Nada Shebl
  • Christianne Micallef
  • Fiona Sim
  • Alison Holmes
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Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1002774
Number of pages12
JournalPLoS Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 29 Mar 2019


Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) strategies are widely implemented in single healthcare sectors and organisations; however, the extent and impact of integrated AMS initiatives across the whole health economy are unknown.• Assessing degree of integration of AMS across the whole health economy and its impact is essential if we are to achieve a ‘One Health’ approach to addressing antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and therefore we searched systematically for and analysed published examples of integrated AMS initiatives to address this gap.• Application of a system-level framework to analyse integration of AMS initiatives across and within healthcare sectors shows that integration is emerging but needs strengthening.• Findings from a small number of evaluations in high-income countries suggest that antimicrobial prescribing and healthcare-associated infections can be reduced using a multisectoral integrated AMS approach.• More robust research designs to evaluate and understand the impact of multisectoral integrated AMS are needed, particularly with respect to differing health systems in different countries and local organisational contexts.• Our analysis highlights a number of challenges and ways forward for enhancing the delivery of AMS through an integrated approach.


© 2019 McLeod et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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