University of Hertfordshire

From the same journal

From the same journal

By the same authors


  • Fang Liu
  • Ambreen Ghaffur
  • Jackreet Bains
  • Shaheen Hamdy
View graph of relations
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)374-381
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Early online date9 Mar 2016
Publication statusPublished - 30 Oct 2016


Older patients (aged 65 years and over) are the major consumers of medicines and many barriers affect their ability in taking medicines orally, especially swallowing difficulties. Moreover, the characteristics of differing medicine formulations might have an impact on their acceptability in older patients. The aims of this study were to validate a Medicines Acceptability Questionnaire (MAQ) and to assess acceptability of oral solid medicines in older ambulatory patients with and without dysphagia. One hundred and fifty six older patients attending community pharmacies were recruited and attended face to face interviews. Two questionnaires were administered during the interviews, the validated Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) assessing oral and pharyngeal swallowing function and the newly developed Medicines Acceptability Questionnaire (MAQ) evaluating patient acceptability of oral solid medicines. Seventeen (11%) participants displayed symptoms compatible with swallowing difficulties identified by the SSQ. Participants with swallowing difficulties were considered themselves more likely to have problems in swallowing tablets and capsules of large sizes (11mm and 13mm tablets and size #00 capsules) compared to participants without dysphagia. Dispersible/effervescent tablets and orally disintegrating tablets were considered to be the most acceptable in this cohort, followed by mini-tablets. Chewable tablets and granules were the least favoured. Consistently higher acceptability scores were seen in the dysphagic population than in the non-dysphagic population for all of the dosage forms that were easier to swallow than tablets and capsules. The development of these formulations will assist in medication taking in older patients with dysphagia and potentially their adherence to drug treatments.


This document is the accepted manuscript version of the following article: Fang Liu, Ambreen Ghaffur, Jackreet Bains, and Shaheen Hamdy, “Acceptability of oral solid medicines in older adults with and without dysphagia: a nested pilot validation questionnaire based observational study”, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Vol 512 (2): 374-381, March 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.03.007 This Manuscript version is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs

ID: 9997078