University of Hertfordshire

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  • bld12373

    Final published version, 476 KB, PDF document

  • Emma Krisson
  • Maria Qureshi
  • Annabel Head
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Original languageEnglish
JournalBritish Journal of Learning Disabilities
Early online date5 Feb 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Feb 2021


People with intellectual disabilities who have limited, or no verbal communication can be involved in research. Ethnographic observations and interview techniques can work together with photovoice. More research needs to be completed directly involving people with intellectual disabilities. Abstract: Background Inclusive research requires adapting methodologies to meet the needs of people with all degrees of intellectual disabilities. However, it must also balance this with the requirements of academic research. Building from previous research a study was completed to illustrate how photovoice could not only be adapted to meet the needs of people with intellectual disabilities who have limited or no verbal communication but to also explore how they express their identity. Methods A qualitative multiple case study method was used to explore identity expression amongst three participants with intellectual disabilities and limited or no verbal communication. The methodology integrated ethnographic observations, photovoice and interview techniques. Findings Integrating the ethnographic observations, photovoice and interview techniques offered families and carers the opportunity to become curious about participants' identities, and this methodology was considered valuable in getting to know more about the person. Conclusions It is hoped that through conducting research that directly involves people with intellectual disabilities, more creative and inclusive methods can be explored, verified and applied across various research contexts.


© 2021 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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