University of Hertfordshire


  • L. Bencs
  • K. Ravindra
  • J. de Hoog
  • Z. Spolnik
  • N. Bleux
  • P. Berghmans
  • F. Deutsch
  • E. Roekens
  • R. Van Grieken
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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3421-3430
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Publication statusPublished - 2010


Daily and seasonal variation in the total elemental, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content and mass of PM2.5 were studied at industrial, urban, suburban and agricultural/rural areas. Continuous (optical Dustscan, standard tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM), TEOM with filter dynamics measurement system), semi-continuous (Partisol filter-sampling) and non-continuous (Dekati-impactor sampling and gravimetry) methods of PM2.5 mass monitoring were critically evaluated. The average elemental fraction accounted for 2-6 % of the PM2.5 mass measured by gravimetry. Metals, like K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb were strongly inter-correlated, also frequently with non-metallic elements (P, S, Cl and/or Br) and EC/OC. A high OC/EC ratio (2-9) was generally observed. The total carbon content of PM2.5 ranged between 3-77 % (averages: 12-32 %), peaking near industrial/heavy trafficked sites. Principal component analysis identified heavy oil burning, ferrous/non-ferrous industry and vehicular emissions as the main sources of metal pollution.


Original article can be found at: Copyright Elsevier Ltd.

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